Monday, September 11, 2006

avtori: gaga niJaraZe


yovel did qalaqs unikaluri socialuri struqtura axasiaTebs. aTasgvari istoriuli, politikuri, demografiuli, eTnikuri faqtori erTmaneTs exlarTeba, urTierTzemoqmedebs, specifikur garemosa da atmosferos qmnis, romlis wiaRSic yalibdeba mxolod mocemuli qalaqisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli socialuri tipi, Tavisi subkulturiT, JargoniT, adaT-wesebiT. aseTia, magaliTad, londoneli kokni. yaraCoxeli da kinto – Tbilisis naSierebi arian. istoriulma peripetiebma Zveli Tbilisis es kolorituli figurebi aRgaves pirisagan miwisa; mxolodRa maTi Selamazebuli landebi SemorCa qarTul kinosa Tu mxatvrobaSi.
Tbilisi Seicvala. Seicvala da icvleba TbiliselTa tipebic. es werili eZRvneba Tbilisuri cxovrebis erT personaJs, romlis kvlavwarmoeba axla, Tu ar vcdebi, ecema; es personaJi, (saubaria Zveli biWis saxeliT cnobil figuraze), transformacias ganicdis. ZvelbiWobis piki, misi socialuri warmateba 1992-94 wlebze modis, rodesac Sesabamisi gageba mcire xniT lamis gabatonda saqarTveloSi. mas mere Zveli biWi, klasikuri saxiT, gaiSviaTebas iwyebs, magram mis mospobaze laparaki naadrevia. ra iqneba - vnaxoT. Tu Zvelma biWebma kintosa da yaraCoxelis bedi gaiziares, ara mgonia, aman vinmes guli dawyvitos. magram Zveli biWis memkvidreebi, albaT darCebian. asea Tu ise, Tavs uflebas mivcem, imedi viqonio, rom SemoTavazebuli anTropologiur-fsiqologiuri etiudi ar iqneba mTlad uintereso.
stalinis sikvdilis Semdeg, 50-iani wlebis bolodan, qarTul sazogadoebaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki axalgazrdobaSi, garkveuli moraluri vakuumi gaCnda - komunisturi Rirebulebebi stalinTan erTad warsuls Cabarda. buneba, mogexsenebaT, vakuums ver itans, amitom, rogorc es xSirad xdeba, xsenebuli vakuumi male Seivso - Seivso primitiuli eTikuri sistemiT, saxeldobr, damnaSaveTa samyaros moraluri kodeqsidan nasesxebi normebiT anu, qurduli gagebiT (odnav Serbilebuli formiT). imave periods daemTxva saqarTveloSi narkotikebis nakadis mkveTri zrda. swored am ori faqtoris moqmedebis produqtia Zveli biWis figura (Tumca Zvel biWsa da narkomans Soris ar SeiZleba tolobis niSnis dasma; es ori kategoria, Tumca mniSvnelovnad, magram mainc mxolod nawilobriv faravs erTmaneTs). faqtobrivad, ZvelbiWobis fenomeni qarTuli kontrkulturis formad SeiZleba CaiTvalos, romelsac safuZvlad edo arsebuli realobis miuRebloba da ufros TaobasTan konfliqti. sxva saqmea, rom gaucnobierebeli protesti mis gamomwvev mizezebze aranakleb uzneo cxovrebis stilSi gamoixata.

qurduli gagebis ZiriTadi principebi ki ase SeiZleba Camoyalibdes:

- araviTari TanamSromloba saxelmwifo struqturebTan, miT umetes kanondamcvel organoebTan. saTanado terminiT markirebuli damsmeni uaRresad odiozuri figura xdeba;

- moraluri normebi vrceldeba mxolod sakuTari wris warmomadgenlebze. sxva adamianebs mxolod gamoyenebiTi Rirebuleba aqvT;

- sakuTari SromiT Tavis rCena uariyofa;

- TviT “qurduli gagebis” wreSi imarjvebs Zlieri; susti ganwirulia;

- yvela pasuxs agebs mowmeTa TandaswrebiT warmoTqmul nebismier sityvasa Tu saqcielze.

daufiqreblad warmoTqmuli sityvis potenciuri efeqtis sailustraciod erT Rimilismomgvrel ambavs moviyvan, romelic TviTmxilvelma momiTxro:

cixis kamera, zeda naraze wamowolilia kaeSaniT Sepyrobili qurdi. qveviT or muJiks Soris mimdinareobs kamaTi Temaze: romeli gaaswrebs, “Jiguli” Tu “zimi”. dro midis, diskusiis simwvave ki ar cxreba. qurdma veRar moiTmina da gaRizianebuli toniT mimarTa mokamaTeebs: “moketeT ra, ar iciT, rom orives velosipedi gaaswrebs?!” - maRali avtoritetiT daTrgunuli muJikebi Cumdebian. qurdi moulodnelad iZabeba da mis Sublze, TiTqos morbenali striqoni CairToo, amoikiTxeba Semdegi fiqrebi: “exla es ro wavides, sadme Tqvas velosipedi manqanas gaaswrebso, qurdma miTxrao, mowmeebic yavs, pirze damadgebian, sityvaze atveCai unda iyo, gamafuWeben!” amitom male gaismis meore replika: “magram... Cveulebrivi velosipedi ki ara, matori unda eyenos!” auditoria gasusulia. problema ki gadauWreli rCeba _ velosipedi, Tundac “matoriani”, mainc ver gaaswrebs. qurdi agrZelebs: “Tanac egeTi... abwekaemi forma unda hqondes”.... da bolos: “da kargi benzini unda esxas!!” amrigad, qurduli Rirseba daculia _ veravin ityvis, rom “zimi” gaaswrebs aqve gamogonebul ucnaur satrasporto saSualebas.

Zveli biWis winamorbedad SeiZleba birJeviki CaiTvalos. birJebis gaCena Tbilisis sxvadasxva ubanSi, Tu ar vcdebi, 50-ian wlebSi xdeba. birJebze ikribebodnen ubnis biWebi, saqmeebs arCevdnen, dros klavdnen. zogjer birJebs Soris konfliqti xdeboda, mimdinareobda metoqeoba ubnis pirveli damrtymelis titulisaTvis... magram udavoa, rom birJevikebis TaobisaTvis qurduli gageba da narkotikebisadmi interesi ar warmoadgenda cxovrebis stilis ganmsazRvrel Rirebulebas.
ase, Tu ise, 60-iani wlebis bolodan Tbilisis quCebSi gamoCnda saSualoze ukeTesad Cacmuli, magram, rom ityvian, cudad movlili, gauparsavi da arcTu jansaRi saxis feris patroni pirquSi figura, damaxasiaTebeli laparakis maneriTa da mixra_moxriT. gavecnoT mas ufro axlos (aq xSirad momiwevs Jargonuli sityvebis gamoyeneba; mkiTxvels vTxov, ar gaigos es rogorc iumoristuli efeqtis misaRwevad gamiznuli xerxi, ubralod, bevri cnebis gamoxatva mxolod Jargonis gamoyenebiTaa SesaZlebeli).
asaki _ 14-dan 25 wlamde. 25 wlis Semdeg Zveli biWebis gzebi iyofa. Nnawili “normaluri” cxovrebis struqturaSi erTveba; amasTan, adre zogi qurduli gagebis principebs iviwyebda da partiul Tu komkavSirul samuSaoze, an miliciaSic ki amohyofda Tavs. Mmeore nawili profesiuli damnaSave xdeboda Tu xdeba; mesame_saqmosnobas iwyebs da a.S.
socialuri warmoSoba _ friad mravalferovani. Zvel biWebSi SexvdebiT dabali, saSualo da maRalSemosavliani ojaxebis Svilebs... es ukanasknelebi da, miT umetes, gavleniani mSoblebis myoli Zveli biWebi did Rirebulebas warmoadgenen naklebad avtoritetuli mSoblebis amara darCenilebisaTvis, vinaidan milicia-policiasTan konfliqtis SemTxvevaSi, didi kaci, Svili rom gadaarCinos, mis Zmakacebsac gamoixsnis gansacdelisagan.
Cacmuloba Zvel biWebs ar axasiaTebT raime specifikuri tansacmeli an atributika (vTqvaT, rokerebisa da hipebisagan gansxvavebiT). erTaderTi, maT uyvarT muqi saTvaleebi, rasac pragmatuli safuZveli aqvs: wamliT amRvreuli Tvalebis dafarva. yuradRebas kidev ramdenime detali ipyrobs. rogorc ukve gakvriT aRiniSna, Zvel biWebs kargi nivTebi uyvarT (romelTac xSirad arcTu patiosani gzebiT Souloben), magram maTTvis sruliad ucxoa eleganturoba da miT umetes, raime eqstravagantuloba CacmulobaSi. igulisxmeba, rom gansakuTrebuli yuradReba sakuTari garegnobis, modis moTxovnaTa mimarT, “arakacuria”. aqedan _ ase vTqvaT, “daudevari stili”, TiTqosda uyuradReboba Cacmisadmi. Tumca es daudevroba moCvenebiTia da specialuradaa Seqmnili _ bevri Zveli biWi moulodnel erudicias avlens tanisamosTan da sxva modur aqsesuarebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebSi.
Zveli biWis yvelaze gamorCeul niSnad specifikuri qceviTi stereotipebi unda CaiTvalos _ laparakis manera, mixra-moxra, Jestikulacia da a.S. am stereotipebis didi nawili mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli Zveli biWis cxovrebis wamyvan fsiqologiur motivTan _ socialuri dominantobis mopovebisagan swrafvasTan. dominanturi pirovneba _ es iseTi adamiania,romelic iswrafvis Zalauflebisaken, mbrZaneblobisaken, damoukideblobisaken, maincdamainc ar uwevs angariSs socialur normebs da avtoritetebs, igi energiulia da agresiuli. ra Tqma unda, dominantobisaken swrafva Zalze did rols TamaSobs adamianTa cxovrebaSi saerTod, magram Zveli biWebis wreSi es Rirebuleba, kaifs Tu ar CavTvliT, praqtikulad mTlianad gansazRvravs cxovrebis wess. amasTan, dominantobis miRwevis xerxebi SezRudulia da saboloo jamSi daiyvaneba fizikuri angariSsworebis muqaramde. talantiT, simdidriT, ojaxiSvilobiT da sxva amgvarebiT Zvel biWebSi dominantur mdgomareobas ver moipoveb. erTaderTi gzaa Sinagani pirovnuli Zalis demonstrireba, anu Sno (sityva Sno aq cvlis friad koloritul Jargonul sityvas, romelsac, samwuxarod, ver vxmarob cenzuruli mosazrebis gamo; gamgebi, ra Tqma unda, gaigebs).
swored amgvari, sakmaod primitiulad gagebuli dominantobis gamoxatulebaa Zveli biWebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli qceviTi stereotipebi. magaliTad, tipuri poza: kiseri da Tavi gaSeSebulia, mxrebi winaa wamoweuli, xelebi modunebulia, magram es araa breqi. breqi, ase vTqvaT, uxeSi fizikuri Zalis demonstrirebas warmoadgens da Zveli biWebis TvalSi provincialobis elfers atarebs. erT dros aseTi “aforizmic” ki iyo gavrcelebuli: “exla meCvidmete saukune araa, marto kunTebze ro iyurebode”. ZvelbiWuri poza ki gamoxatavs Rirsebas, sakuTar TavSi darwmunebulobas da samyaros mimarT odnav ironianarev qedmaRlobas. saubris dros erTi an orive xeli idayvSi ixreba da modunebuli maja sityvebis taqtSi moZraobs. Tu bazarma ufro mZafri xasiaTi miiRo, Jestebi muqaranarevi xdeba _ modunebuli mxolod Sua da usaxelo TiTebi rCeba, danarCeni TiTebi ki gaxevebulia da oponentisaken mimarTuli, aqcentirdeba qvemoTken (anu miwisken) mimarTuli moZraobebi.
klasikuri Zveli biWi erT sakmaod rTul xelovnebas unda flobdes – SeeZlos karga xani imyofebodes Cakuzul mdgomareobaSi. visac ucdia, dameTanxmeba, rom es arcTu iolia. bazriTa da furTxebiT garTul Zvel biWs ki saaTebi SeuZlia gaataros Cakuzulma. rogorc etyoba, sasurveli Sedegi xangrZlivi varjiSis Sedegad miiRweva da aq Zvel biWebs mxolod iaponelebi Tu Seejibrebian.
Zveli biWisaTvis aucilebelia rac SeiZleba farTo da rac mTavaria, avtoritetuli nacnobebis wris yola. axlad gacnobil TanatolTan urTierTobisas pirvel rigSi, irkveva saerTo nacnobebis wre _ amis mixedviT dgindeba Tanamosaubris rangi. gasagebia, rom amgvar situaciaSi bevri uRmerTod ityueba _ ama da am legendaruli figuris uaxloesi Zmakaci varo. Tumca es martivi xerxi arcTu ise xSirad aRwevs mizans _ gamocdili Zveli biWi advilad xvdeba sicruesac, mosaubris WeSmarit rangsac da Sesabamisad eqceva.
Tavyrilobis adgilebSi, gansakuTrebiT Tu damswreTa rangi arcTu ise maRalia, Zveli biWi “beberi lomis” rols TamaSobs, misi moZraobebi zanti xdeba, saubari neli da sityvaZunwi. yvelasaTvis cxadia, rom mas iseTi “gza aqvs gamovlili”, iseTi peripetiebi gadaxdenia, rom mocemuli Tavyriloba misTvis araviTar interess ar warmoadgens da masze daswrebiT igi did pativs sdebs auditorias (sinamdvileSi saqmis viTareba umravles SemTxvevaSi swored rom sawinaaRmdegoa). amitom pativcemuli stumris yovel sityvas didi Rirebuleba aqvs _ rasac TviT Zveli biWic yvelanairad usvams xazs: sityvebs warmoTqvams cxvirSi da odnav xrinwiani, “zanti” xmiT. didi mniSvneloba aqvs intonacias: STabeWdileba iseTia, Zveli biWebi yoveli erTi-ori sityvis Semdeg SekiTxvas svamen. magaliTad fraza: `meSvide klasamde friadosani viyavi” _ Zveli biWis gadmocemaSi ase JRers (Jargonuli da uwmawuri gamoTqmebis gamotovebiT): “me?... skolaSi ro vswavlobdi?... meSvide klasamde?... su xuTebi myavda”...
es fraza SemTxveviT ar momiyvania. saqme imaSia, rom aRweril situaciaSi “beberi lomi” xSirad didaqtikur saubars mimarTavs, romlis Temas xSirad swavlisa da ganaTlebis apologia Seadgens. Zveli biWi sinanuls gamoTqvams, rom cxovrebis ukuRmarTobam igi adre mowyvita codnis wyaros da damswreebs mouwodebs wignebi ikiTxon, iswavlon da a. S. ra Tqma unda, amgvar mowodebebs arc erTi wuTiT ar uyurebs seriozulad arc Zveli biWi da arc auditoria. qveteqsti aq sul sxvaa _ isev dominantobis demonstrireba: igulisxmeba, rom Zveli biWis “cxovrebis gza” rCeulTa xvedria, xolo bunebiT naklebad dajildoebulma pirebma Tavisi SesaZleblobis Sesabamisi asparezi unda airCion, _ magaliTad, iseTi arcTu ise rTuli saqmianoba, rogoricaa swavla-ganaTlebis miReba.
saerTod, mowiwebis grZnobiT gamsWvaluli auditoriis winaSe mariaJi Zvel biWebs udides bednierebas aniWebs. swored am mizniT xdeboda maTi koncentrireba svetur kurortebze _ wyneTSi, bakurianSi, biWvinTaSi da sxva. aseT viTarebaSi ki praqtikulad gardauvali iyo Setakebebi. da marTlac, sakurorto sezonebze sakmao sisxli iRvreboda da iRvreba. adgilobriv miliciasa da qirurgebs samuSao uaTkecdebaT, Tumca isic unda iTqvas, maTi materialuri mdgomareobac sagrZnoblad umjobesdeba.
Zvel biWebs saerTod uyvarT “kai cxovreba”. moskovis, leningradis, baltiispireTis dedaqalaqebis saukeTeso sastumroebSi aucileblad waawydebodiT CvenTvis nacnob figurebs. amasTan dakavSirebiT erTi epizodi maxsendeba. 70-iani wlebis bolos moskovSi “mona liza” Camoitanes da aman TbilisSic garkveuli aJiotaJi gamoiwvia. hoda, erT sakmaod Wrel wveulebaze damswre Zvelma biWma moulodnelad gamoTqva natvra, idumalad momRimari qalbatonis portretis mflobeli gamxdariyo. mcire pauzis Semdeg viRacam frTxilad hkiTxa, rad gindao, razedac amomwuravi pasuxi miiRo: “Svidas maneTad gavyiddi da talinSi wavidodio”...
sagulisxmoa Semdegi garemoeba: arc erTi Zveli biWi ar ityvis sakuTar Tavze, Zveli biWi varo. sxvebze icocxleT, ityvis. rogorc Cans Zveli biWi gulis siRrmeSi grZnobs, rom misi cxovrebis stili fuWia da uperspeqtivo, magram vinaidan masze xels ver iRebs, amitom fsiqologiur Tavdacvas mimarTavs _ sakuTar Tavs arwmunebs, me ara var Zveli biWi, gacilebiT ufro Rrma da rTuli pirovneba var...
gasagebia, rom “kai cxovreba” da gansakuTrebiT “wamali” sakmao saxsrebs saWiroebs. magram sanam Zveli biWis Semosavlis wyaroebs SevexebodeT, erTi momenti unda aRiniSnos. yvela zemoT aRwerili qceviTi stereotipi, laparakis manera da a. S., ra Tqma unda, nebismieri Zveli biWisaTvis aucilebelia, magram mxolod maTi saSualebiT SeuZlebelia maRali rangis mopoveba. saWiroa, jer erTi, Zvel biWs marTlac gaaCndes pirovnuli Zala (da ara mxolod misi demonstrirebis unari) da meorec, garkveuli niWi, azrovnebis sisxarte, situaciis alRos aRebis unari; igi unda wamSi gaerkves, sad bolomde miawves, sad minimaluri danakargebiT ukan daixios, sad saerTod ar gamoiCinos Tavisi ZvelbiWoba da a. S. gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs bazaris xelovnebas. bevri Zveli biWi WeSmariti virtuozia kazuistikis, demagogiisa da sofistikis dargSi. ilustraciisTvis erT magaliTs moviyvan.
mTavar personaJebs pirobiTad davarqvaT `Zveli biWi”, `msxverpli” da `Zmakaci”. kolizia aseTia: msxverplma `ori dRiT aTxova” Zvel biWs dana anu tisaki, romelic, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, arc ori da arc ocdaori dRis Semdeg ukan ar daubrunda. msxverpls kargad esmis, rom miwolis Sno ara aqvs _ Zveli biWis avtoriteti da rangi ufro maRalia. amitom igi Rrmad Cafiqrebul svlas mimarTavs _ Zvel biWs eubneba, rom didi xania Zmakacs dapirda, am tisaks gaCuqebo, axla ki Zmakaci danapirebs moiTxovs. igulisxmeba, rom msxverpls viTomda tisaki sulac ar enaneba (“raa, rkinaa bolo-bolo”), magram ra qnas, Zmakacs aCuqa, danapirebs ki Sesruleba unda (sityvis gatexva, rogorc viciT, ar SeiZleba). sinamdvileSi, rasakvirvelia, Zmakaci, iuridiuli eniT rom vTqvaT, “crumagieri”, anu padstavnoi figuraa, romelic safuZvels umagrebs msxverplis pretenziebs. dainteresebuli pirebi da neitraluri mayureblebi (romelTa Soris mec vimyofebi) sadarbazoSi DSeikribnen. gaimarTa dialogi, romelic tipiuri ZvelbiWuri sofistikis karg magaliTs warmoadgens:

Zveli biWi: “Sen me mawvebi?”
msxverpli: “ho, Zmakacs vaCuqe...”
Zveli biWi: “znaCit, tisaki Seni aRaraa. rogorRa mawvebi?”
msxverpli: “Zmakaci mawveba, maitao”.
Zveli biWi (Zmakacs): “Zmakacs rogor awvebi, Cemi...!” Zmakaci darcxvenilia.
Zmakaci: “me Sen gawvebi?”
Zveli biWi: “Zmao, tisaki Sen momeci? ara? maS rogor mawvebi?!”

incidenti amowurulia. yvelasaTvis cxadia, rom msxverplisa da Zmakacis pretenziebi sruliad usafuZvloa. dana Zvel biWs rCeba sruliad “kanonierad”.
rac Seexeba Zveli biWis materialur uzrunvelyofas, igi ZiriTadad sami wyarosagan Sedgeba: elementaruli qurdoba (wvrili sagnebidan dawyebuli da binebis gasufTavebiT damTavrebuli), azartuli TamaSebi (TaRliTuri xerxebic farTo gamoyenebiT) da egreT wodebuli dawerva. am ukanasknelis meqanizmi metad martivia. Zveli biWi raimes (tansacmels, saaTs, fuls, an, rogorc aRweril epizodSi, tisaks da a.S.) “Txoulobs” an “sesxulobs” dabal rangiani Tanatolisagan da Semdeg aRar ubrunebs. usafrTxoeba aseT SemTxvevaSi TiTqmis garantirebulia, dazaralebuli policiaSi ar Civis (isev qurduli gagebidan gamomdinare), xolo Tu igi daxmarebisaTvis nacnob maRalrangian Zvel biWs mimarTavs, rogorc wesi, zrdilobian uars awydeba _ aq ukve Zveli biWis “profesiuli eTika” moqmedebs. ise ki aRniSnuli meTodis gamoyenebisas Zvel biWs agreTve marTebs “taqti” _ mogexsenebaT cxvari cxvaria...

kargad mesmis, rom mocemuli narkvevi araa sruli da Zveli biWebis yofis Sesaxeb kidev bevri SeiZleba iTqvas, magram am jerze TqmuliT Semovifarglebi. aRvniSnav mxolod, rom Cveni sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi kidev bevri “TeTri laqaa”, romlebiTac jer-jerobiT cota vinme Tu dainteresebula. arada maT ukan yovelTvis konkretuli, cocxali da saintereso realoba imaleba. isic udaoa, rom “nacnobi ucnobebi” zemoqmedeben saerTo-qarTul mentalitetze, qcevis normebze da a. S. magaliTad, Cemi azriT, ZvelbiWuri realiebi garkveul gavlenas axdenen saqarTvelos politikur cxovrebazec ki.
cxadia, Tu gvinda SevicnoT, vin varT da ra varT, Cveni sazogadoebis yvela jgufisa da fenis Taviseburebebi unda gaviTvaliswinoT. Zveli biWebic am ricxvSia.


gagas sxva statiebi Cem blogze:


1.http://taktaka.blogspot.com/2006/03/qartuli-sazogadoeba-dres-adaptaciuri.html
2.http://taktaka.blogspot.com/2006/03/blog-post.html
3.http://taktaka.blogspot.com/2006/09/qartuli-kultura-qaluri-mamakacuri.html
4.http://taktaka.blogspot.com/2006/03/we-they-culture-and-conflict.html
5.http://taktaka.blogspot.com/2006/03/time-at-cinema-and-time-at-life.html

1 comment:

dato said...

Levan,

dsvel bithsebze gamaxsenda: ertxel ertma egetma bavshvobashi sharvali gamacvlevina dsalit...

ladarias bolo statia kargia, antadses stored akritikebs, saghol.

dato