Saturday, September 16, 2006

ეროვნული სტერეოტიპები საბჭოთა ანეკდოტში


avtori: gaga niJaraZe



Îáîáùåííûé ñoâåòñêèé àíåêäîò:

Áðåæíåâ è ×àïàåâ ëåæàò â îäíîé ïîñòåëè è îáà åâðåè.



zogadad anekdotebis Sesaxeb

zigmund froidi ambobda, rom anekdotebisaTvis sami ZiriTadi Tema arsebobs: seqsi, sapirfareSo da politika. rasakvirvelia, es Temebi araa SemTxveviTi. yvela adamianis sulis kunWulSi imaleba arsebuli sinamdvilis gadatrialebis, akrZalvebis darRvevis survili. yvela sazogadoebaSi arsebobs ritualebi, wesCveulebani da sxva misTanani, romlebic amgvari impulsebiT aRZruli daZabulobis ganmuxtvis saSualebas iZlevian. xolo Tu isini Tavis funqcias ver audian, daZabuloba matulobs da SeiZleba afeTqebiTac ki damTavrdes.
anekdotis erT-erT mTavar socialur funqcias Seadgens tabus darRveva, magram ara qceviT, aramed mxolod sityviT. seqsi da sapirfareSo swored is Temebia, romelTa Sesaxeb sajarod saubari araa miRebuli; xolo Zalauflebis kenweroze myofi pirebis srul idiotebad an usindiso matyuarebad warmoCena arsebul wess arRvevs da Zalauflebis iluzias badebs am ukanasknels moklebul xalxSi.
60-iani wlebidan, anu xruSCovis epoqaSi, ssrk-sa da e.w. socialisturi banakis sxva qveynebSi iwyeba politikuri anekdotis arnaxuli gafurCqvna. ufro adre, stalinis dros, xalxuri Semoqmedebis es forma arqtikis yvelaze naklebad cxel regionebSi mogzaurobis garantias Seadgenda da amgvarad ar hqonda ganviTarebis pirobebi. Semdeg ki... amboben, rom suk-Si, sadac TiTqosda kargad esmodaT anekdotis@`orTqlgamomSvebi~ funqcia, iyo specialuri ganyofileba, sadac iTxzveboda politikuri anekdotebi. ase iyo Tu ise, stalinis, xruSCovis, breJnevis da ZmaTa maTTa Sesaxeb geslianma Sayirma WeSmaritad saerTo saxalxo gavrceleba hpova da epoqis simbolod iqca.


`erovnuli~ anekdotebis Sesaxeb


Tðè æåëàíèÿ ôðàíöóæåíêè:

ðþìêà êîíüÿêà äî è ñèãàðåòà ïîñëå.

magram aris anekdotebis kidev erTi klasi, romelsac froidi ar axsenebs, Tumca xSirad mimarTavs magaliTebisaTvis Tavis cnobil wignSi `gonebamaxviloba da misi mimarTeba aracnobierTan~. ra Tqma unda, esaa anekdotebi sxvadasxva eris warmomadgenelTa Sesaxeb. maTi siuJetebi xSirad isev seqss, tualetsa da politikas utrialebs, magram bevr maTganSi gaTamaSebulia ubralod erovnuli stereotipi, zogjer ramdenime. amgvari anekdotebi yvela qveyanaSia gavrcelebuli da iumoris garda, sakuTar socialur funqciasac asrulebs: maRla wevs TviTSefasebas, arasrulfasovnebis an bralis kompleqss akompensirebs, xdeba dagrovili gaRizianebisa Tu agresiisagan gantvirTva maTi sxva, `ara Cveni~ eris stereotipul warmomadgenelze gadatanis gziT. erovnuli anekdotis es `fsiqoTerapiuli~ efeqti, rasakvirvelia, mcirea da TiTqmis yovelTvis SeumCneveli, rogorc momyolisaTvis, ise msmenelTaTvis, magram igi aris da Tavis saqmes akeTebs.


CuqCebi


Ha âîåííûõ ó÷åíèÿõ îäèí òàíê íàðóøàåò ñòðîé.
Êîìàíäèð â ÿðîñòè îðåò â ìèêðîôîí. Èç òàíêà
âûëåçàåò ÷óê÷à â ðàäèîøëåìå: - Òîâàðèù
êîìàíäèð, øàïêà ãîâîðèò!!!


erovnuli anekdotebis aRwerili funqciebis Sesabamisad irCeva maTi personaJebic, e.i. konkretuli eTnikuri jgufebis warmomadgenlebi. erTi, personaJi SeiZleba gaxdes iseTi eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgeneli, romelic yvelaferSi CamorCeba `mTqmel~ jgufs - kulturiT, ganaTlebiT, cxovrebis doniT... aseT SemTxvevaSi rolebis ganawileba cirkis situacias emsgavseba: bavSvi xarxarebs jambazis oinebze, romelic sulelurad gamoiyureba, yvelaferi xelidan uvardeba da mxolod sibriyves ambobs; es ki malamod edeba patara, zogjer ki arcTu patara mayureblis TviTSefasebas (`me xom aseTi ara var!~)
sxva qveynebisa ar vici, da sabWoTa kavSirSi es roli CuqCebs ergoT. garkveul dromde CuqCebi cxovrobdnen TavisTvis, nadirobdnen selapebze da irmebs mwyemsavdnen. ssrk-is danarCenma mosaxleobam, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, icoda, rom aseTi xalxi arsebobs, es iyo da es. da uceb, 70-iani wlebis dasawyisidan CuqCebi SemoiWrnen yvela saxlSi, yvela dawesebulebaSi da yoveldRiurobis nawilad iqcnen. ai, CuqCa televizors Rebavs, igi rom `feradi~ iyos, ai, tyeSi dakarguli, mSvelelTa mosaxmobad mSvilds isvris, anda pasportis miRebidan erTi kviris Semdeg axals iTxovs, radgan `Zveli ukve movwieo~.
ratom maincdamainc CuqCebi, da ara, vTqvaT, evenkebi an xakasebi? Cemis azriT, aq ZiriTadi roli sityva `CuqCam~ iTamaSa, romelic rusuli yurisaTvis TavisTavad Rimilismomgvrelad, `bavSvurad~ JRers.
erTi sityviT, erT mSvenier dRes CuqCam myarad daimkvidra adgili erovnuli anekdotebis tradiciuli personaJebis, ebraelis da qarTvelis gverdiT. marTalia, am ukanasknelTa funqcia sxva iyo.


kidev cota Teoria

ingliselma anTropologma viqtor ternerma aRwera saintereso fenomeni, romelsac man `sustis Zala~ uwoda. igi SemdegSi mdgomareobs: xSirad xdeba, rom susti, daCagruli Tu damonebuli eTnikuri jgufi gabatonebuli jgufis TvalSi faruli siZlieris niSans iZens, TiTqos susti jgufi flobs raRac saidumlo codnas, mistikur Zalas, an kidev sxva raimes, rac miuwvdomelia `Zlieri~ jgufisaTvis. kargi magaliTia boSebi, romelTac momavlis ganWvretis unari miewerebaT. saboloo jamSi gabatonebul jgufSi `susti~ jgufis mimarT ormagi ganwyoba vrceldeba: erTis mxriv, erTgvari pativiscema, xolo meores mxriv gaRizianeba imis gamo, rom `Cven~ Ria varT `maT~ winaSe, `isini~ ki `Cvens~ winaSe daxurulni arian. gaRizianebisagan Tavis daRweva ki SesaZlebelia, Tu mis wyaros sasacilod warmoaCen. ase warmoiSoba meore tipis erovnuli anekdotebi.
ar unda mtkiceba, rom sabWoTa kavSirSi `gabatonebul jgufs~ rusebi Seadgendnen; xolo anekdotebis yvelaze popularuli personaJebi iyvnen ebraelebi da qarTvelebi (iyo kidev ukrainuli anekdotebi, magram maTi fsiqologiuri analizi miWirs, radgan rusul-ukrainul urTierTobebs sakmarisad ar vicnob).


ebraelebi



Åâðåé - æåíå, ïîñëå âèçèòà ê âðà÷ó:
- Òû çíàåøü, Ñàðà, òî, ÷òî ìû ñ÷èòàëè
ñòðàñòüþ, îêàçàëîñü àñòìîé...


ebraul anekdots ruseTSi sakmaod xangZlivi istoria aqvs. gasuli saukunis meore naxevarSi ebraelebi, diskriminaciuli kanonebis miuxedavad, TandaTan ikaveben mniSvnelovan adgils ruseTis sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, gansakuTrebiT komerciis sferoSi. mdidrebi ki ruseTSi ar uyvarT, ase rom reaqciamac ar daayovna. gaCnda uamravi monaCmaxi `ebraelTa msoflio SeTqmulebis~ Sesaxeb (sustis Zala!); amasTan erTad ebraelTa Sesaxeb anekdotebis moyolac daiwyes. siuJetebi Cveul Temebs utrialebda - col-qmruli Ralati, sidedri, skola... magram amave dros aSkarad gamoikveTa dominanturi niSani, romelic ebraels miewereboda: momxveWeloba. sainteresoa, rom germanulenovan qveynebSi, sadac ebraelebi agreTve ar uyvardaT, anekdotis personaJs sxva uaryofiT niSans miawerdnen, saxeldobr, modiT, ase vTqvaT, piradi higienis arcTu maRal dafasebas (ori ebraelis Sexvedra abanoSi. erTi amoioxrebs: ai, kidev erTi welic gavida...). kargi magaliTia imisa, Tu rogor usvams xazs kultura misTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovan Rirebulebebs.
magram davbrundeT ruseTSi. sabWoTa periodSi rabinoviCs, gasagebi mizezebis gamo, ukve aRar SeuZlia legaluri kerZo biznesis warmarTva. magram Tavis mowodebas igi ar Ralatobs: ewyoba im saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi, sadac fuli keTdeba:

(Ãîëîñ ñ åâðåéñêèì àêöåíòîì: - Àëëî, ýòî áàçà? - Äà. - À êòî ãîâîðèò? - Èâàíîâ. -Ïðîñòèòå, ÿ íàâåðíîå îøèáñÿ íîìåðîì, î÷åâèäíî ýòî âîåííàÿ áàçà...)

magram 60-iani wlebidan rabinoviCi axal rolSic gvevlineba, amasTan misi es axali saxe wamyvani xdeba sabWoTa anekdotSi: ebraeli xdeba sabWoTa reJimis, marTalia, pasiuri, magram friad gesliani mowinaaRmdege, garda amisa, erovnuli niSnis mixedviT diskriminaciis msxverpli (xruSCovTan moaqvT dasamtkiceblad kandidatTa sia moskovis mTavari rabinis Tanamdebobaze. - Tqven gagiJdiT?! - yviris xruSCovi, - aq xom mxolod ebraelebia!).
anekdotebis am seriaSi ebraeli, rogorc wesi, araTu ar warmoadgens ganqiqebis obieqts, aramed piriqiT, TviTon dascinis politikur Tu socialur realobas, anu `dadebiTi~ personaJis rolSi gvevlineba. es garemoeba miuTiTebs, rom amgvari anekdotebi TviT ebrauli inteligenciis wreebSi ibadeboda. amrigad, ebrauli politikuri anekdoti - es kidev sxvaa, saxeldobr ki reaqcia `Zlieris Zalauflebis~, am SemTxvevaSi politikuri reJimis (da ara konkretuli eris) winaaRmdeg.


qarTvelebi

qarTveli dgas arbatze da fuls iTvlis.
gamvleli: - Òîâàðèù, êàê ïðîéòè ê ìàâçîëåþ? - praxadi, praxadi, delom zaimis...

anekdotebi qarTvelebis Sesaxeb agreTve 60-ian wlebSi Cndeba, anu im periodidan, rodesac sabWoTa cxovreba mniSvnelovan cvlilebebs ganicdis. mTavari is iyo, rom sazogadoebrivi piramidis kenweroze `organoebis~ adgili partiulma nomenklaturam daikava. yvelafers, mogexsenebaT, Tavisi fasi aqvs; nomenklaturisaTvis Zalauflebis safasuri gaxda sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis erTgvari liberalizaciis daSveba. sxva daTmobaTa ricxvSi xelisufleba iZulebuli gaxda daexuWa Tvalebi oficialuri kanonmdeblobiT akrZalul komerciul saqmianobaze. reJimma TiTqos qveSevrdomebTan dado dauwereli xelSekruleba: akeTeT rac gindaT, fuli iSovneT, magram Zalian nu gaxvalT Tavs, da rac mTavaria, ar gabedoT oficialur ideologiasa da politikaSi Careva.
saqarTveloSi TamaSis axali wesebi Zalian swrafad da efeqtianad SeiTvises. bevrma Cvenma Tanamemamulem didis gulmodginebiT iwyo fulis keTeba; amasTan, da es Zalze mniSvnelovania, isini, ebraelebisagan gansxvavebiT, ar eridebodnen simdidris sajarod demonstrirebas. swored es garemoeba aRizianebda yvelaze metad `sabWoTa sazogado-ebriobis farTo wreebs~. da Cndeba personaJi - givi an gogi, romelic araa damZimebuli maRali inteleqtiT, saSineli aqcenti aqvs, rac xSirad xdeba sasacilo gaugebrobaTa mizezi; magram givis mTavari Tvisebebia dauokebeli ltolva qalebisadmi (SimSils qarTveli erT kviras uZlebs, wyurvils - erT dRes, uqalobas - araumetes ori saaTisa) da fuliT savse jibeebi. qarTvelebis Sesaxeb anekdotebSi xSirad esmeboda xazi, rom kerZod givi da mTlianad saqarTvelo cxovroben Tavisi, arasabWouri wesebiT. ara, antisabWoTa ganwyobas qarTvelebs ar miaweren; maT ubralod sxva interesebi aqvT da xSirad ar ician is, rac ar SeiZleba ar icodes yovelma sabWoTa adamianma, magaliTad, marqsizmis klasikosTa an politbiuros wevrTa saxelebi (`breJnevi es romelia, `vremiaSi~ rom TamaSobs?~).

sagulisxmoa, rom 90-iani wlebidan, komunizmis dangrevis Semdeg, qarTuli anegdotebis nakadi ruseTSi mcirdeba, ganTavisuflebul `ekologiur niSas~ ki `axali rusebi~ ikaveben. `axali rusi~ bevr detalSi imeorebs qarTvel personaJs: igive iolad naSovni fuli, igive am fulis dauTvlelad xarjva, igive gauTleloba (Îäèí “íîâûé ðóññêèé” äðóãîìó: - Ñìîòðè, êàêîé ÿ ãàëñòóê êóïèë çà äâå òûñÿ÷è áàêñîâ. - Äóðàê, çà óãëîì òî÷íî òàêîé-æå ïðîäàþò çà òðè òûñÿ÷è!); aRaraa mxolod mususoba da, rasakvirvelia, aqcenti. sxvamxriv ki es ori personaJi umravles SemTxvevaSi urTierTSenacvlebadia, gansakuTrebiT Tu anekdotSi fuli figurirebs. da es garemoeba, saxeldobr ki simdidris ganqiqeba, rac misadmi mkveTrad uaryofiTi damokidebulebis maniSnebelia, Zalze damafiqrebelia: dauSvebs ki rusuli kultura Tavis qveyanaSi sabazro ekonomikisa da demokratiuli institutebis damkvidrebas? xom ar ganmeordeba 1917 wlis oqtomberi, romelic, istorikos iakovenkos sityvebiT, iyo sxva araferi, Tu ara rusuli kulturis globaluri reaqcia, romelic miznad isaxavda dangrevis procesSi myofi bazuri Rirebulebis aRdgenas; Rirebulebisa, romelsac SeiZleba ewodos: sayovelTao Tanasworoba siRatakeSi...


Åâðåé - ýòî ïðîôåññèÿ, ãðóçèí - îáðàç æèçíè, ÷óê÷à - äèàãíîç, à ðóññêèé - ýòî ñóäüáà...

1 comment:

Writer'n said...

Hey, Levan! Thanks for the opportunity to write about my self..heheh
Please send me a mail so I can get your mailadress to send it to

writern@writern.no

Re
Writer'n